Do you feel uncontrollable itchiness?


Do you have large amount of pimples?

Popping pimples

Well here's a solution to your problem... =)


          An antibiotic (anti-bacterial to be exact) from Actinobacteria. It is mostly used to treat acne (blackheads/whiteheads or pimples), common problems of male or females going into puberty.

Brand Names:
  • Sumycin
  • Terramycin
  • Tetracyn
  • Panmycin
Every drug has it side effects. And some of tetracycline's side effects are:

Tetracycline Stain
  • can stain developing teeth
  • can cause permanent teeth discoloration (for more information on tetracycline stain click here.)
  • anaphylactic shock
  • drug-induced lupus and hepatitis
It can also be used as a marker for biopsies to test bone growth.


  1. Aureomycin - Dr. Benjamin Duggar
  2. Terramycin - AC Finlay et. al.
These are the first group of tetracycline to be discovered and after these discoveries more subgroups have been discovered. Please refer to this link for more information.

Reference: Clinical Diagnosis and Management in Laboratory Methods 21st ed., John Bernard Henry et. al.

A big YES for me!!!

Nowadays, drug addiction is one of the main problem in our society. Drug abuse can lead to more serious problems like crime due to the effect of the drug taken.

Our parents want us to have a healthy school environment. And taking drug test before admission can help to achieve a "DRUG FREE SCHOOL".

In conducting this, the school will know who are using drugs and can implement guidelines to help them stop using drugs.


If you have nothing to hide, what could be the problem in taking a drug test? Students who are refusing this kind of protocol maybe hiding the truth. If you are clean and have nothing to hide a drug test is like giving a simple information to assure the safety of your fellow students.

In conclusion, as a student we should be a good role model to others and teach them the right things to do. Inspire and encourage others to study hard and DO NOT TAKE DRUGS.

Photo References:

I do not have any experience of my own so I ask my mother if she experience anything to do with toxicology.

My mother told me that she ate “sisig” and squid for dinner. After that she’s been suffering LBM all night. She didn’t know which of the two causes such reaction. But after sometime when she ate a squid again she suffered not only redness of the skin but also a swollen lips, and anaphylactic shock. She was then rushed to the emergency room and given the right treatment for that allergic reaction.

Allergic reaction due to squid and all other kinds of shellfish is called, “Shellfish Allergy”. It can cause mild symptoms up to severe and life-threatening symptoms.


·         Hives, itching or eczema
·         Swelling of the lips, face, tongue and throat, or other parts of the body
·         Wheezing, nasal congestion or trouble breathing
·         Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting

This allergic reaction is due to “immune system malfunction”. The body recognizes certain food as harmful to the system and releases antibodies to react against them. When you encounter this kind of food again, the body releases histamine. Histamine is responsible for most of the body’s allergic responses.


When you have shellfish allergy, you may be at increased risk of anaphylaxis if:

·         You have asthma
·         You have allergic reactions to very small amounts of shellfish (extreme sensitivity)
·         You have a history of food-induced anaphylaxis

Test and diagnosis that will help your doctor to rule out other medical problems:

·         Skin Test
·         Blood Test

The best treatment is prevention. Do not eat squid or any kind of shellfish if you have this type of allergy. To avoid eating shellfish you should:

·         Take caution when dining out
·         Be especially alert at seafood restaurants
·         Read labels
·         Keep your distance
·         Don't take coral calcium

Photo Reference/s:

HCG is the hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It can be tested using either urine or serum. As for the one assigned to me let's talk about serum HCG determination.

There are two types of test for serum HCG determination:

1. HCG blood test - qualitative
2. HCG blood test - quantitative

HCG blood test - qualitative

Why the test is performed?

  • to check if a woman is pregnant
  • woman with ovarian tumors
  • men with testicular tumors

    Normal Results:
    • it is negative if not pregnant and positive for pregnant women.

    Abnormal Results:
    • Ectopic pregnancy
    • Miscarriage
    • Testicular cancer
    • Trophoblastic tumor
    • Ovarian cancer

      • If the test turned out to be negative but still there is suspicion of pregnancy it should be repeated after a week.
      • A false positive result may occur after menopause or a person taking hormone supplements.

      HCG blood test - quantitative

      Why the test is performed?
      • Quantitative test can assist in diagnosing abnormal pregnancies: ectopic, molar and miscarry.
      • This test can also be use in diagnosing diseases or conditions not related to pregnancy that can make the HCG levels to raise.

        Normal Results:
        • After the first trimester of pregnancy, the HCG level will rise and will gradually decline.

        Abnormal Results:
        • Above normal results may indicate:
                  >normal pregnancy
                  >ovarian cancer
                  >testicular cancer
                  >more than one fetus
          • Below normal results may indicate:
                      >fetal death
                      >incomplete miscarriage
                      >ectopic pregnancy

              • Drugs can either decrease or increase the HCG levels which can cause false positive or false negative results.

              The Positive and Negative Result

              As the photo above said, hormones secretes different chemicals that helps regulate metabolism. It may also regulate growth, reproduction and maintains chemical balance in our body.


              "Messenger" - hormones travel to other part of our body where they help regulates the activity of cells and organs for them to work properly.

              Endocrine Glands:
              • Hypothalamus - ex. TRH, CRH
              • Anterior Pituitary Gland - ex. TSH, FSH, PRL
              • Posterior Pituitary Gland - ex. Oxytocin, ADH
              • Thyroid Gland - ex. T3, T4

              • Parathyroid Gland - ex. PTH
              • Pancreas - ex. Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin
              • Testes - ex. Testosterone
              • Ovary - ex. Estrogen, Progesterone
              Non-Endocrine Glands:


              The study of Hormones:
              • receptors
              • intracellular signalling pathways they invoke
              • diseases and conditions

                  If you are having unusual hormonal conditions the physician for you is a medical endocrinologist. They have background training in different medical fields such as pediatrics, oncology and internal medicine.

                  *The nervous and endocrine systems often act together to regulate the physiologic processess of the human body and those intimate interactions constitute neuroendocrinology.




                    • The study of the effects of poison in the human body and how to diagnosis and treat poisoning.
                    • These poisons can be chemical or physical agents on living organisms.

                    Factors affecting toxic effect of a chemical:

                        • Dose
                        • Route of exposure
                        • Fate of the chemical after the organism is exposed
                        • Time course of the exposure

                    DRUG TESTING


                    It is the detection of certain drugs prior of drug use. Drug examination use biological material such as urine, hair, saliva or sweat. Drug screening is use in different occupations that require them and in athletic competitions.